300 ce). In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal, Pope Alexander VI confirmed their claims to the New World on the basis of their ability to baptize its inhabitants and instruct them in the faith. AbstractThe aim of this paper is to defend a type of pluralistic philosophical theory that addresses the specific characteristics of Latin American religious diversity. Syncretism, in this case, is the mixing of Christianity with something else such that they become a different gospel. In essence what this boils down to is the clergy's decision to pick their battles. Syncretism in anthropology, sociology and religious studies reflects the meeting, mixing and blending of components of different religious traditions or systems (Smith, 1974). relocation diffusion. Christianity is the largest religion in Brazil, with Catholics having the most adherents. In Santeria/Christian syncretism in Cuba and Haiti she is known as Our Lady of Regla. A) Christian saints replaced pre-Christian gods. ». by Lewis Loflin. Sponsored by Ferdinand V and Isabella (the ‘Catholic Kings’), they came to the Americas just after the reconquest of Spain and Portugal from the Muslim Moors of North Africa (completed in 1492, a few months before Columbus's ‘discovery’ of America) and so brought with them a sense of religious citizenship which conflated the RC faith with fealty to the Crown. But these encounters are not necessarily The vast majority of Latin Americans would identify themselves as Christians by religion. 369-492. In Bahia, she is known as Our Lady of Conception. 1 The … Central America; South America; Middle East; North America; Oceania; Tutorials; About ; Home » Culture and Society • Mexico • Religion » Maya and Catholic Religious Syncretism at Chamula, Mexico. Handbook of Middle American Indians 6, 1967, pp. Through its combination of Yoruba and Hispanic cultural and religious traditions, Santería exemplifies Latin America's unique syncretic religious landscape, and the process of cultural fusion that allowed it … It was the largest landholder in Ibero–America and managed wealth through various Church-owned financial assets; it ran every institution of higher learning; it controlled the political and intellectual life of the colonies through the Inquisition; and it had an active or passive presence through parish life in virtually every community. Syncretism, the foundation of santeria. The continent of Africa has been home to hundreds of indigenous tribes speaking a wide variety of languages and believing a wide variety of different spiritual ideas. Syncretism / ˈ s ɪ ŋ k r ə t ɪ z əm / is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. The early missionary orders who worked to convert America's great native peoples—the Aztecs of Mexico, the Incas of Peru, the Maya of Guatemala and Yucatán—met with initial resistance, but eventually proved successful, both through coercion and what Bartolomé de Las Casas called ‘peaceful persuasion’, in converting the indigenous people from their pre-hispanic polytheistic religions to Christianity. This chapter describes two tasks in "defining syncretism"; one task concerns the phenomenon of syncretism, the other task relates to the notion of syncretism. But within that uniformity, there are in fact many strands of beliefs and practices, some of which are oppositional to each other. What is it? With absence of religious syncretism American societies would be dominated by diverse conflicting religious practices. Latin America, Christianity in  Starting with perhaps the most popular of dual identity Christian deities, the Virgen de Guadalupe is an example of this phenomenon. A Study of Mexican Religious Syncretism. Latin America, where evengelical Protestantism is increasingly challenging the historical Catholic hegemony. It is contrasted by the idea of multiple religious belonging and polytheism, respectively.. Answer: Syncretism, as defined by the American Heritage Dictionary, is “the reconciliation or fusion of differing systems of belief.” This is most evident in the areas of philosophy and religion, and usually results in a new teaching or belief system. Christianity was brought to Latin America by the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors of North, Central, and South America in the 16th cent. This was because the Indians were accustomed to accepting the gods of their conquerors into their pantheon, but they weren't so willing to cease the worship of the gods of their ancestors. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). In other words, one thing had nothing to do with the other and praying for rain to the rain gods in order to ensure a good crop had no effect on his Christianity. For instance, Christianity and Islam have somehow been combined to form a religion whose aspect constitutes elements of both Christianity and Islam. "Religious Syncretism." Was it really important that the Indigenous population understand that the Christian gods they were told to worship were strictly Christian? You can get a more in depth look at this deity's background here, but for a quick overview, this deity was created by Miguel Sanchez, a Catholic priest, in 1648, but was embraced by the Christian clergy in Mexico as a way to convert the Indigenous population because of her Indian appearance. Influenced by the Deism of the French and American revolutions, new national governments enacted anti-clerical policies that much reduced the Church's institutional presence in many Latin American countries in the course of the 19th and early 20th cents. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church », Subjects: Once again, in Brazil, Yemanja is one of the seven orixas of the African Pantheon and is also known as the Queen of the Ocean. The syncretism between Christian and Umbanda religion gives us Our Lady of the Seafaring. For instance, when Roman Catholicism came to the Americas, particularly Latin America, they forced the Native Americans to convert to Roman Catholicism. Most American Native groups in both North and South America have the concept of a Great Creator and a number of them have beliefs that are in harmony with basic Christianity. In Bahia, she is known as Our Lady of Conception. a creolized religion. Those similarities were downplayed in the effort to cast natives as inferior or sub-human. Religion, View all related items in Oxford Reference », Search for: 'Christianity in Latin America' in Oxford Reference ». A church was built for her on the Hill of Tepeyac, which was also the site of the pagan Nahua goddess, Tonantzin. • Describe how the devotion to the Virgen de Guadalupe has maintained indigenous religious traditions in Latin America through religious syncretism. As the empire expanded, conquered cultures were permitted to keep their own beliefs and local gods provided they pay homage to the Inc… During the European Slave trade, Brazil got a majority, some 70%, of black slaves, but their first stop was usually the Caribbean.The Africans brought along their beliefs and gods from Africa and even though the Indigenous population already had their own gods, they were quite open to new ones. Answer: Though many European settlers and explorers who followed in Columbus's footsteps proselytized their Catholic beliefs, it wasn't until 1537 that Pope Paul III issued a charter affirming that the indigenous populations in Latin America were equal to Europeans, and thus allowed to become Christians. While the appearance on the surface may be one of Christian conversion, all that really happened was the addition of new deities to a pre-existing pantheon. This pagan god has several identities depending on what country you are in, so in Bahia, he is more synonymous with St. Sebastian or St. Anthony. any attention to Latin American questions. Psychologists, Black slaves tied their beliefs to Christian saints, creating a syncretism or religion equivalence. Religious history is full of syncretism. in  cultural lag. Christianity changed and created a new, unique religion through the mixing of cultures and religions (syncretism). Latin America faces environmental crises that directly affect the health and well-being of its people, especially the poor. Such cultural practices would create cracks among the American societies due to conflict of interest (Rheenen, 2006). A computer-based bibliographical search carried out even in 1982 (then still a relative novelty in the human ities), using "syncretism" as a key-word, produced an emphasis on subjects relating to Latin America or the Caribbean (especially among anthropologists in the Herskowits tradition). This week, from April 10 th to April 17 th, is the celebration of the Holy Week in the Christian world.In Latin America and the Caribbean, this religious festivity, as with most of the Catholic rituals celebrated in the region, must be read under the light of the historical process of colonization. D) Christian saints replacing pre-Christian gods, and celebration of Carnival in Brazil E) All of the choices are examples of syncretic religion in Latin America For example, Christianity has highly dominated a significant fraction of American societies. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. Syncretism: Amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought Research Question: What exactly allowed for the Santería's creation, popularity, and widespread following? I think this is the best example of Christianity in Latin America as understood by not only the Indigenous population, but even among modern Latinos. In modern America, religion not only plays a central role in harmonising people but also acts as a platform over which human beings in the society relate to each other as members of a given religion (Christians or Islam) they are expected to act in a manner considered reasonable in the society as a whole. Even the corresponding pagan religion that synchronized with Christianity can make a difference in the dual identity of this god, so in Voudou he is known as St. Jacques Majeur (St. James the Greater), or Santiago Matamoros (St. James the Moorslayer), but in Santeria he is syncretized with St. Peter. The definition given syncretism by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is: "1) the combination of different forms of belief or practice" and "2) the fusion of two or more originally different inflectional forms". In a series of films to be shown during three consecutive weeks of IAP, we will learn about Christianity, Judaism, and religious practices such as Umbanda and Candomble that synthesize African and indigenous faiths with Christianity. took place across Latin America with the introduction of a new faith as well as the ancient syncretism between the indigenous cultures. The Indian Face of God in Latin America. Berkley: University of California Press, 2006. Nevertheless Catholicism remained the dominant presence on the spiritual landscape of Latin America, an enduring reflection of what historians have called the ‘spiritual conquest of Latin America’. Spiritism and occultism connected to divination is highly extended among santeros, the people who perform santeria. Winn, Peter. The final goal of this paper is to uncover the syncretism that took place across Latin America with the introduction of a new faith as well as the ancient syncretism between the indigenous cultures. One definition from www.britannica.com states: Religious syncretism, the fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices. The ancient Romans adopted pagan Yule traditions that eventually made it into Christmas celebrations (Christmas trees, Yule logs, and the like), and Roman Catholics in Central and South America integrated elements from indigenous Latin American and North American religious traditions. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. Information is also presented about the process of syncretism as evidenced in the growth and development of the cult of Maria Lionza in Venezuela , and about the remarkable case recently reported of religious syncretism among the Cora Indians Catholic Syncretism Forms The Basis For The Teachings Of The World Christian Gathering on Indigenous People Movement (WCGIP) by Sandy Simpson, 8/1/13. This week, from April 10 th to April 17 th, is the celebration of the Holy Week in the Christian world.In Latin America and the Caribbean, this religious festivity, as with most of the Catholic rituals celebrated in the region, must be read under the light of the historical process of colonization. Latin America. Clearly with this example as with others, the Spanish were only so successful in their quest to convert the Indigenous population. Syncretism; Madsden, William. All religions (as well as philosophies, systems of ethics, cultural norms, etc.) Religious syncretism at its best is not old truths in new guise or just old or new truths confused; rather, through a creative dialectic, new religious insights have been born. One certainly cannot speak of "African religion" as if it was a single, coherent set of beliefs. Religious syncretism at its best is not old truths in new guise or just old or new truths confused; rather, through a creative dialectic, new religious insights have been born. Religious practices during the Ancient Period in Latin America were spread orally within tribes and between civilizations through conquest. Through its combination of Yoruba and Hispanic cultural and religious traditions, Santería All Rights Reserved. Keywords: syncretism, religion, Vodu, Orisha, Africa Introduction This article examines current debates surrounding the concept of syncretism in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean and grapples with more than forty years of literature surrounding the concept.1 The comparative, historical, and ethnographic data of my own and It can be summarized in one word: “syncretism.” Syncretism is the combining, adoption, or co-opting of beliefs of one group by a new group. What exactly allowed for the Santería's creation, popularity, and widespread following? The continent of Africa has been home to hundreds of indigenous tribes speaking a wide variety of languages and believing a wide variety of different spiritual ideas. became the empire builders of New World Catholicism, founding churches, schools, universities, and missions along the distant frontiers of Mexico and Brazil. Because of this we see so many Christian deities with a dual identity in Latin America today. Conservative Christians in Latin America. Also from the Yoruba religion, this is another deity that has several identities. In Andean America, the expansion and formation of institutional religions first emerged alongside the foundation of Cuzco and the dawning of the Inca Empire. The conquistadors were fired by a medieval devotion to the extension of Christendom. • Describe how the devotion to the Virgen de Guadalupe has maintained indigenous religious traditions in Latin America through religious syncretism. Marzal, Manuel M.. The Jesuits in the second half of the 16th cent. But as you will see in these pages, many of them share rituals, beliefs, language and even veneration of the same gods—revealing common origins in … Ogum originated in Yoruba and Haitian religions. Religious relativism & syncretism in America I just read a good article on religious relativism in America from USA today by Kathy Lynn Grossman. • Make reference to the course readings (ATTACHED), the film The Other Conquest, … Christianity and Colonial Expansion in the AmericasSpain was the first European country to colonize what today is North and South America, and the Spanish approach to the region came from several directions. Among the many tools used in the Spanish Conquest, Christianity was perhaps the surest way to ensure compliance from the Indigenous population in the New World. The Vatican granted to Spain and Portugal the patronato real de las Indias, which gave their sovereigns the right to appoint all bishops within their territories, sealing the bond between the Church and Crown. The versions of these religions as they developed in the New World became known as African Diaspora religions. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. The article is pretty good because it causally mentions how silly religious relativism is by pointing out that people often accept multiple religious systems which contradict each other. possess some level of syncretism because ideas do not exist in a vacuum. D) Christian saints replacing pre-Christian gods, and celebration of Carnival in Brazil E) All of the choices are examples of syncretic religion in Latin America Contrasts with antecedent saint cults in 16th‐century Spain demonstrate the “Mayan‐ness” of this syncretism; comparison with saint cults in other Maya communities relates syncretism more closely to local contexts of community morality than to enduring “deep structures” of some primordial Maya culture or to a “false consciousness” born of persistent colonialist oppression. Syncretism is the formation of new religious ideas from multiple distinct sources, often contradictory sources. A live chicken with its feet bound was removed from a burlap sack and laid down upon the church’s floor. When a typical farmer and descendant of the Maya in the Yucatan Peninsula was asked why, if he was a Christian, did he make offerings to the chaac, the rain spirits, he answered, "Because I make milpa." One was from the Caribbean area, primarily Cuba and Puerto Rico, into Florida. MESTIZAJE AND RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Posted on April 10, 2017 by Catalina Hernandez-Cabal Young and Wickstrom, 2014. Pluralism with Syncretism: A Perspecti ve from Latin American Religious Div ersity 241 meet one another, that are capa ble of modifying each other ² . This essay discusses the involvement of religious groups in the myriad environmental struggles found in Latin America today. In there specific kind of living, religion in Africa and America has been in one way or another integrated to come up with a solemn mode of religion. A) Christian saints replaced pre-Christian gods. Syncretism / ˈ s ɪ ŋ k r ə t ɪ z əm / is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. their missions among the Guaraní Indians of Paraguay (based partly on Thomas More's Utopia) were among the best known RC missions. Jesus, especially as Christianity continues to grow in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ». With the introduction of another culture, the Africans, into this New World, the pantheon just grew bigger.The Christians had not only the Indigenous idolatry to contend with, but they also had the deities of this other culture, the Africans, and their syncretism with the Indigenous culture to compete with. This week, from April 10th th to April 17, is the celebration of the Holy Week in the Christian world. Herbert Richardson phrases the need for such creative interpenetration very nicely: “Christianity has been a Western religion too long. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). Instances of religious syncretism—as, for example, Gnosticism (a religious dualistic system that incorporated elements from the Oriental mystery religions), Judaism, Christianity, and Greek religious philosophical concepts—were particularly prevalent during the Hellenistic period (c. 300 bce –c. Viewing the RC Church as a conservative and atavistic competitor for power, the new liberal national governments sought to replace their citizens' loyalty to the Church with nationalism. In the 17th cent. The conquest was in reality incomplete, as evidenced by the enduring presence of indigenous religion mixed with Catholic beliefs and rituals, a practice known variously as ‘folk Catholicism’, ‘religious syncretism’ or ‘creolized religion’ that is still common in regions that have large indigenous populations, such as southern Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Peru. This is an example of independent innovation of cultural traits. In their gatherings it is common to see all sorts of sacrifices happening. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Identify one way that Christianity in Latin America demonstrated religious syncretism. Herbert Richardson phrases the need for such creative interpenetration very nicely: “Christianity has been a Western religion too long. Even when pagan idols where removed and former temples and shrines destroyed, the sites still remained. Nevertheless, Christianity has incorporated some religious practices whose origins are from ancient Greeks and native Indian Americans. While Latin America inherited a Catholic religious legacy from its colonial past, the region today is home to a number of faiths and spiritual practices. Together they directed the political-ecclesiastical enterpr… One certainly cannot speak of "African religion" as if it was a single, coherent set of beliefs. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. the RC Church was the single most pervasive and influential colonial institution. Religious Syncretism, Hellenism, and Christianity. Syncretism has been a serious issue throughout Christian history. Syncretism. The syncretism between Christian and Umbanda religion gives us Our Lady of the Seafaring. After years of using force the Catholic monks and friars had to come to the realization that Christianity as a monotheistic religion was just not something that the Indigenous population embraced. SYNCRETISM IN LATIN AMERICA Paper instructions: • Discuss the role of syncretism and religious conversion in the film The Other Conquest. Psychologists, Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian friars, and later the Jesuits, preached among the indigenous groups of the Americas, with varying degrees of success. From:  The Jesuits were expelled from Latin America in 1767. This week, from April 10th th to April 17, is the celebration of the Holy Week in the Christian world. Many historical Native American religious movements have incorporated Christian European influence, like the Native American Church, the Ghost Dance, and the religion of Handsome Lake. While on the surface, Christian gods and deities such as saints and virgins were accepted by the Indians, they continued to worship their own gods in secrecy. MESTIZAJE AND RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Posted on April 10, 2017 by Catalina Hernandez-Cabal Young and Wickstrom, 2014. Syncretism in anthropology, sociology and religious studies reflects the meeting, mixing and blending of components of different religious traditions or systems (Smith, 1974). Or was it necessary for them to give up their own beliefs? • Make reference to the course readings (ATTACHED), the film The Other Conquest, … The Catholic monarchs, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile, supported by the staunch integralist Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros and succeeded by Charles I (as Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V) and Philip II, molded Spain into a unified nation that would be capable of what each believed to be a divine mission—the Christianization of the Americas. When native Americans were confronted with Christianity, some incorporated elements of Christianity into their own beliefs, creating a new, syncretistic system. Cristo-Paganism. Syncretism is a process where the fusion of cultures, religions, and philosophies produce both new faiths and cultures or the destruction of older faiths. The versions of these religions as they developed in the New World became known as African Diaspora religions. Much of the research that has been done on syncretism focuses heavily on the religious aspect, but this paper will combine religion with art. New Orleans, LA: The Department of Middle American Research, The Tulane University of Louisiana, 1960. In Pew Research Center telephone surveys conducted in 2018 and 2019, 65% of American adults describe themselves as Christians when asked about their religion, down 12 … SYNCRETISM IN LATIN AMERICA Paper instructions: • Discuss the role of syncretism and religious conversion in the film The Other Conquest. Americas, The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean. DBQ Christianity Evaluate the extent to which Christianity changed societies in Latin America in the period 1500-1800 Thesis: (responds to the prompt with a clear historically defensible thesis/claim that establishes a line of reasoning)  Throughout the period 1500 to 1800, Christianity played an immense role in Latin American society. The fact that superstitions have been accepted within the Christian religion is a telltale reminder of the unspoken compromise that was made between the Spanish Catholics and the Indigenous population five hundred years ago. The Impact of African Traditional Religious Beliefs and Cultural Values on Christian- Muslim Relations in Ghana from 1920 through the Present: A Case Study of Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan area of the Central Region. In Latin America and the Caribbean, this religious festivity, as with most of the Catholic rituals Farris, Nancy M. Maya Society Under Colonial Rule. African and African-inspired religions in Latin America and the Caribbean are as diverse as the region itself. The other side of this argument, however, is that common Christian understandings of syncretism—or lack of understanding, more often—block Christians’ ability to appreciatively interpret other Christians. Syncretism is not a new phenomenon. B) the celebration of Carnival in Brazil C) The Mayan practice of paying tribute to underworld spirits is replicated through building shrines to favorite Catholic saints. Brazil possesses a richly spiritual society formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous people. Christian , spiritist , and other beliefs and practices derived frem European sources. Photo Essay Afro-Latin Religion. B) the celebration of Carnival in Brazil C) The Mayan practice of paying tribute to underworld spirits is replicated through building shrines to favorite Catholic saints. 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